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Closing the achievement gap: Using the environment as an integrating context for learning.

Liebermann, J., & Hoody, L. (1998).

Research Scope:

40 schools in 12 states (California, Colorado, Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Washington) that have designed entire school curricula and structure around using the local community and natural resources as the context for learning.

Research Design:

Liebermann and Hoody looked at the effects of Environment as an Integrating Context (EIC). EIC shares the same pedagogy as place-based education. They conducted:

Summary of Findings:

In this seminal 1998 study, Lieberman and Hoody found that students in schools that used EIC were outperforming their peers from non-EIC schools. In particular, they found: