Meta-analysis Studies on Instruction and Schools (synthesis)

Robert J. Marzano, Barbara B. Gaddy, & Ceri Dean

The synthesized research findings presented in this document are based in part on an earlier study (Marzano, 1998), which summarizes findings from more than 100 studies involving 4000+ control groups. Since that document was published, McREL researchers have analyzed additional research findings from selected research on instructional strategies that could be used by teachers in K-12 classrooms. The combined results of these syntheses are presented in "What Works in Classroom Instruction."

This study identifies nine instructional categories that strongly affect student achievement:

  • Identifying similarities and differences
  • Summarizing and note taking
  • Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Homework and practice
  • Nonlinguistic representations
  • Cooperative learning
  • Setting goals and providing feedback
  • Generating and testing hypotheses
  • Activating prior knowledge



Delivery Area
  • school based
Outcome Area
  • academic performance
  • teacher practice
Participant Area
  • student
  • educator
  • school